A machine deployment is always bound to one availability zone (in short AZ) as it’s machines cannot exist in more than one (and machines from different AZs are not mixed in one machine deployment). This restricts the storage that can used by the pods running on these machines. So the storage that pods running on these machines want to use need to be available in the same availability zone the machine resides in.
Having only one machine-deployment running (which is the default) poses no problems as the storage for a pod is requested for the same AZ. If a pod gets evicted to a different machine (for whatever reason) it will still be in the same AZ and thus will be able to access that storage in the usual way.
If you create more than one machine deployment (like adding an additional one to the default one), you can choose from different availability zones. You are not required to use the same one you used for the first (default) machine deployment (although you could if it suites your use-case). When adding a second machine deployment in another AZ you need to be aware that the kubernetes scheduler could decide to schedule a pod which was previously running on a machine in one AZ to now run on a machine in a different AZ. This will leave the pod in pending state unable to be run correctly as it is missing it’s storage which is anchored to the old AZ and cannot be moved or migrated automatically.
A solution to this scenario would be to pin the pod to a specific AZ. This can be done with a kubernetes feature called affinity, which can be specified on either a deployment, statefulset or daemonset. With affinity you can specify that a pod should only run in a specific AZ. This would make sure that if a pod gets evicted from a machine it will only ever be scheduled on a machine in that specific AZ. Here is an example for a deployment with one pod in AZ ES1:
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: labels: app: myapp name: myapp namespace: default spec: replicas: 1 ... template: ... spec: affinity: nodeAffinity: requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: nodeSelectorTerms: - matchExpressions: - key: topology.kubernetes.io/zone: operator: In values: - es1 ...
(The three consecutive dots meaning we are omitting lines which are not vital to the argument we are trying to make … the example will not work without the omitted lines though!)
There is a way to achieve higher availability by creating more pods and use (anti-)affinity to make sure two pods of the same application ido not run in the same AZ. As this whole topic is about storage we need to choose a StatefulSet for this, otherwise it will not be possible for the kubernetes scheduler to connect the pods with it’s respective storages (persistent volumes and their claims).
Here is an example for affinity rules of a StatefulSet with two replicas, and demanding the two replicas not to be deployed in the same AZ:
apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: StatefulSet metadata: labels: app: myapp name: myapp namespace: default spec: replicas: 2 ... template: ... spec: affinity: podAntiAffinity: requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: - labelSelector: matchExpressions: - key: app operator: In values: - myapp topologyKey: topology.kubernetes.io/zone ...
(Again the three consecutive dots meaning we are omitting lines which are not vital to the argument we are trying to make … the example will not work without the omitted lines though!)
For more complicated setup please consult the original kubernetes documentation.