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Step 7: The first VM

Start

In the previous steps, you learned everything you need to create a VM.

In general, it is best to create VMs as part of a stack, and to create these stacks with Heat, or other automation tools like Terraform.

To ensure that you know the basics, this step deals with creating a single VM manually.

Installation

The basic command to create a single VM is:

openstack server create test

If you execute the above command, the following error is returned:

usage: openstack server create [-h] [-f {json,shell,table,value,yaml}]
                               [-c COLUMN] [--max-width <integer>]
                               [--print-empty] [--noindent] [--prefix PREFIX]
                               (--image <image> | --volume <volume>) --flavor
                               <flavor>
                               [--security-group <security-group-name>]
                               [--key-name <key-name>]
                               [--property <key=value>]
                               [--file <dest-filename=source-filename>]
                               [--user-data <user-data>]
                               [--availability-zone <zone-name>]
                               [--block-device-mapping <dev-name=mapping>]
                               [--nic <net-id=net-uuid,v4-fixed-ip=ip-addr,v6-fixed-ip=ip-addr,port-id=port-uuid,auto,none>]
                               [--hint <key=value>]
                               [--config-drive <config-drive-volume>|True]
                               [--min <count>] [--max <count>] [--wait]
                               <server-name>
openstack server create: error: argument --flavor is required

It tells us that you have not specified a flavor for your VM.

To specify a flavor, you need to add the flag --flavor with a flavor argument.

With the following command you can see the available flavors:

$ openstack flavor list
+--------------------------------------+------------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| ID                                   | Name       |   RAM | Disk | Ephemeral | VCPUs | Is Public |
+--------------------------------------+------------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+
| 090bcc91-6207-465d-aff0-bfcc10a9e063 | m1.medium  |  8192 |   20 |         0 |     4 | True      |
| 4ade7a50-f829-4bf6-af15-266798ea8d6f | win.large  | 32768 |   80 |         0 |     8 | True      |
| 5dd72380-088e-48cd-9a18-112cb5a9cab5 | win.small  |  8192 |   80 |         0 |     2 | True      |
| 884d5b93-1467-4bc1-a445-ff7c74271cbd | m1.micro   |  1024 |   20 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| b7c4fa0b-7960-4311-a86b-507dbf58e8ac | m1.small   |  4096 |   20 |         0 |     2 | True      |
| d45e3029-8364-4e4c-beab-242e8b4622a3 | win.medium | 16384 |   80 |         0 |     4 | True      |
| dfead62e-96a8-46e9-bdae-342ecce32d41 | win.micro  |  2048 |   80 |         0 |     1 | True      |
| ed18c320-324a-487f-88e1-3e9eb9244509 | m1.large   | 16384 |   20 |         0 |     8 | True      |
+--------------------------------------+------------+-------+------+-----------+-------+-----------+

If you add --flavor m1.micro to the command and execute it, it will still return an error as OpenStack needs more data to start a new VM.

In addition to flavors, you need to supply the key (--key-name) and the operating system image to be installed (--image), the network the VM will run on (--network), and the security group to be applied to it (--security-group).

You already created a security group in a previous step, so you need to acquire an image and a network to create your first VM.

With the following command you can see the available images:

$ openstack image list
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+--------+
| ID                                   | Name                                  | Status |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+--------+
| fd8ad5aa-6b33-4198-a05d-8be42fc0f20e | CentOS 7 - Latest                     | active |
| 82242d21-d990-4fc2-92a5-c7bd7820e790 | Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus - Latest    | active |
| 8e82fd42-3d6f-44a7-9f20-92f5661823cf | Windows Server 2012 R2 Std - Latest   | active |
| 536c086c-d2a4-43dd-80ea-a9d05ee2b97f | Windows Server 2016 Std - Latest      | active |
| c94ced87-a03e-4eec-89f7-48f2c0ec6cd2 | debian-9.1.5-20170910-openstack-amd64 | active |
| b1195ddf-9336-42a7-a134-4f2e7ea57710 | iNNOVO-OPNsense-17.7.8                | active |
| 9134b6ed-8c5a-4a9a-907e-733dc2b5f0ef | iNNOVO_pfSense 2.3.4                  | active |
+--------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+--------+

Next, you have to select a nework. You can create a simple network with the following command:

$ openstack network create BeispielNetzwerk
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Field                     | Value                                |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| admin_state_up            | UP                                   |
| availability_zone_hints   |                                      |
| availability_zones        |                                      |
| created_at                | 2017-12-08T08:32:44Z                 |
| description               |                                      |
| dns_domain                | None                                 |
| id                        | a783d691-7efe-4f67-9226-99a014fa8926 |
| ipv4_address_scope        | None                                 |
| ipv6_address_scope        | None                                 |
| is_default                | False                                |
| mtu                       | 1500                                 |
| name                      | BeispielNetzwerk                     |
| port_security_enabled     | True                                 |
| project_id                | b15cde70d85749689e08106f973bb002     |
| provider:network_type     | None                                 |
| provider:physical_network | None                                 |
| provider:segmentation_id  | None                                 |
| qos_policy_id             | None                                 |
| revision_number           | 2                                    |
| router:external           | Internal                             |
| segments                  | None                                 |
| shared                    | False                                |
| status                    | ACTIVE                               |
| subnets                   |                                      |
| updated_at                | 2017-12-08T08:32:44Z                 |
+---------------------------+--------------------------------------+

Note that this network has no internet connection, and no additional configuration.

You will learn how to create a functional network in Step 10.

Now we will put everything together, and create a VM. In this example, you will use the default security group, the Ubuntu 16.04 image (you use the ID in the command line), and the previously created network and key:

$ openstack server create BeispielServer --flavor m1.small --key-name Beispiel --image 82242d21-d990-4fc2-92a5-c7bd7820e790 --network=BeispielNetzwerk --security-group default
+-----------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------+
| Field                       | Value                                                  |
+-----------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------+
| OS-DCF:diskConfig           | MANUAL                                                 |
| OS-EXT-AZ:availability_zone | es1                                                    |
| OS-EXT-STS:power_state      | NOSTATE                                                |
| OS-EXT-STS:task_state       | scheduling                                             |
| OS-EXT-STS:vm_state         | building                                               |
| OS-SRV-USG:launched_at      | None                                                   |
| OS-SRV-USG:terminated_at    | None                                                   |
| accessIPv4                  |                                                        |
| accessIPv6                  |                                                        |
| addresses                   |                                                        |
| config_drive                |                                                        |
| created                     | 2017-12-06T14:15:02Z                                   |
| flavor                      | m1.small (676d2587-b5aa-49eb-998d-d91c1bd6c056)        |
| hostId                      |                                                        |
| id                          | 44ff2688-4ce5-417d-962b-3a80199bf1bc                   |
| image                       | cirros-tempest1 (2fbe66ef-adc8-44d0-b2e2-03d95dc36936) |
| key_name                    | cg                                                     |
| name                        | BeispielServer                                         |
| progress                    | 0                                                      |
| project_id                  | 1e775e2cc71a461991be42d4fad8a5cb                       |
| properties                  |                                                        |
| security_groups             | name='3265503b-ac24-4f60-a8d0-466b7c812916'            |
| status                      | BUILD                                                  |
| updated                     | 2017-12-06T14:15:02Z                                   |
| user_id                     | b54fda3f4d1a484797b3ad4de9b3f4f9                       |
| volumes_attached            |                                                        |
+-----------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------+

To see all possible parameters during the creation of a VM, you can use --help:

$ openstack server create --help
usage: openstack server create [-h] [-f {json,shell,table,value,yaml}]
                               [-c COLUMN] [--max-width <integer>]
                               [--print-empty] [--noindent] [--prefix PREFIX]
                               (--image <image> | --volume <volume>) --flavor
                               <flavor>
                               [--security-group <security-group-name>]
                               [--key-name <key-name>]
                               [--property <key=value>]
                               [--file <dest-filename=source-filename>]
                               [--user-data <user-data>]
                               [--availability-zone <zone-name>]
                               [--block-device-mapping <dev-name=mapping>]
                               [--nic <net-id=net-uuid,v4-fixed-ip=ip-addr,v6-fixed-ip=ip-addr,port-id=port-uuid,auto,none>]
                               [--hint <key=value>]
                               [--config-drive <config-drive-volume>|True]
                               [--min <count>] [--max <count>] [--wait]
                               <server-name>

Create a new server

positional arguments:
  <server-name>         New server name

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --image <image>       Create server boot disk from this image (name or ID)
  --volume <volume>     Create server using this volume as the boot disk (name
                        or ID)
  --flavor <flavor>     Create server with this flavor (name or ID)
  --security-group <security-group-name>
                        Security group to assign to this server (name or ID)
                        (repeat option to set multiple groups)
  --key-name <key-name>
                        Keypair to inject into this server (optional
                        extension)
  --property <key=value>
                        Set a property on this server (repeat option to set
                        multiple values)
  --file <dest-filename=source-filename>
                        File to inject into image before boot (repeat option
                        to set multiple files)
  --user-data <user-data>
                        User data file to serve from the metadata server
  --availability-zone <zone-name>
                        Select an availability zone for the server
  --block-device-mapping <dev-name=mapping>
                        Map block devices; map is
                        <id>:<type>:<size(GB)>:<delete_on_terminate> (optional
                        extension)
  --nic <net-id=net-uuid,v4-fixed-ip=ip-addr,v6-fixed-ip=ip-addr,port-id=port-uuid,auto,none>
                        Create a NIC on the server. Specify option multiple
                        times to create multiple NICs. Either net-id or port-
                        id must be provided, but not both. net-id: attach NIC
                        to network with this UUID, port-id: attach NIC to port
                        with this UUID, v4-fixed-ip: IPv4 fixed address for
                        NIC (optional), v6-fixed-ip: IPv6 fixed address for
                        NIC (optional), none: (v2.37+) no network is attached,
                        auto: (v2.37+) the compute service will automatically
                        allocate a network. Specifying a --nic of auto or none
                        cannot be used with any other --nic value.
  --hint <key=value>    Hints for the scheduler (optional extension)
  --config-drive <config-drive-volume>|True
                        Use specified volume as the config drive, or 'True' to
                        use an ephemeral drive
  --min <count>         Minimum number of servers to launch (default=1)
  --max <count>         Maximum number of servers to launch (default=1)
  --wait                Wait for build to complete

output formatters:
  output formatter options

  -f {json,shell,table,value,yaml}, --format {json,shell,table,value,yaml}
                        the output format, defaults to table
  -c COLUMN, --column COLUMN
                        specify the column(s) to include, can be repeated

table formatter:
  --max-width <integer>
                        Maximum display width, <1 to disable. You can also use
                        the CLIFF_MAX_TERM_WIDTH environment variable, but the
                        parameter takes precedence.
  --print-empty         Print empty table if there is no data to show.

json formatter:
  --noindent            whether to disable indenting the JSON

shell formatter:
  a format a UNIX shell can parse (variable="value")

  --prefix PREFIX       add a prefix to all variable names

Conclusion

You have now created your first Instance using basic OpenStack commands. In the next step, you will delete this instance.